In Ancient Mesopotamia, which is what Iraq used to be, there are two major rivers. One of the major rivers is the Tigris River. Mesopotamia means “land between two rivers”, but in truth, it’s two rivers and a delta that surrounds the land. The earliest components of the civilization of Mesopotamia, the Ubaid, was the marshland where the rivers met. The Ubaid was started at around 6500 BCE. The Tigris River is the eastern river, and the Euphrates is the western river. The Tigris is closer to Persi, which is what Iran used to be. These two rivers flow alongside each other from each of their ends. They flow through the region’s many hills, and each of the habitats of the rivers is sometimes broad and riparian. Other times, the rivers are placed in a valley like when the Tigris flows in and out of Mosul. The civilizations that developed in Mesopotamia were the Assyrians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Sumerians. The two rivers were used by the civilisation as a cradle when they were evolving. During the civilisations’ peak, they used the river to create their own hydraulic systems, which helped them gain the capacity to support around twenty million people.
The Tigris and Its Geology
In Western Asia, the Tigris River is the second largest one right next to the Euphrates River. The Tigris River starts in the proximity of Turkey’s Lake Hazar at the high elevation of over a thousand feet tall or almost four thousand feet high. The snow that falls every year in the highlands of the northern regions of Iraq, Iran, and Turkey is what feeds the Tigris River. The river is what forms the border between Syria and Turkey, and it extends for over thirty kilometres where it meets Iraq. There is only around forty kilometres of the river that is in the country of Syria. A few tributaries feed the river, and the ones that feed the river the most are the Kharun, Diyala, and Zab rivers.
The Tigris River meets with the Euphrates River right next to the town called Qurna. The two rivers join with another river named Kharkah, where they then form an expansive delta as well as the river named Shatt-al-Arab. This combination of rivers flows to the south of Qurna to the Persian Gulf. The Tigris River, in its whole, expands for a bit more than a thousand miles. Throughout thousands of years, the river’s course has changed due to irrigation.
Mesopotamia and Its Climate
The rivers’ minimum and maximum monthly flow rate vary greatly. The sharpest differences are with the Tigris River, where the difference reaches almost eighty times throughout the whole course of an entire year. The Zagros and Anatolian highlands has precipitation reaches over a meter. The precipitation is a significant factor that helped the Assyrian King Sennacherib a few thousand years ago. It helped him with the invention of the first water control system using stone masonry in the world.